Sword Fern (Polystichum munitum)
Hardy and adaptable, the evergreen sword fern forms architectural upright clumps. These can provide structure to shady areas.
USE BY PEOPLE & CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE
During famine, the roots (rhizomes) can be peeled then boiled or baked in small quantities due to possible presence of toxins or carcinogens). Fronds are used for lining baking pits and storage baskets, or as placemats, floor coverings, bedding, and drying racks to prevent berries from sticking. Fronds are also used for games, dancing skirts, decorations, and flower arrangements.
Both new and old fronds provide structure and cover for wildlife.
Remove old growth in early spring before active growth resumes. Prefers acidic soils with high organic matter content.